Digital Post-processing on Scale Models - A Tool in Design Education

  • Maria Mandea Student, National University of Arts Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: digital, post-processing, education, design, photography


Design education can benefit from using a more integrated approach between digital techniques and traditional model-making. This approach expands perception and can add layers of imaginative thinking, advancing the design process.

Model making is an important tool in design as a way of developing and transmitting ideas in a three-dimensional manner. Also photography has been used in the past to understand and perceive design models. However, in recent years, due to both photography and digital post-processing of images being made accessible on a larger scale, it is becoming used as a fast rendering technique by some professionals and students. But it isn’t yet being used in design education. The process has three stages, without being linear: model-making, photography on the model and post-processing. They often influence each other, as new information and creative input in one stage can determine changes in another. So the model will affect the photograph and the post-processed image and also the post-processed image can induce changes in the model and, therefore, in the form of the object. This paper is based on theoretical research, observations of current practice and three workshops done at the Architecture School in Bucharest in February-March 2018. It expands the ways in which we can use accessible technology in design and design education. 


Anay H, Ozten Ü Bauhaus pedagogy and digital design. 8th Conference of the International Committee for Design History & Design Studies [Internet]; 2014 feb; 1 (1): 41-45

Boucharenc CG. Research on Basic Design Education: An International Survey. Int J Technol Des Educ. [Internet] 2006 Jan. [cited 2018 Nov. 20]; 16(1): 1-30. Available from:

CottonC. Deadpan. In: The Photograph as Contemporary Art. 2nd edition. London, Thames and Hudson; 2009: 81-114.

Heiddeger M. Construire, Locuire, Gândire. In: Originea operei de artă. Bucharest, Humanitas. 1995; 175-221.

Kullmann K. Hyper-realism and loose-reality: the limitations of digital realism and alternative principles in landscape design visualization. Journal of Landscape Architecture. [Internet] 2014 Sep. 30 [cited 2018 Nov. 20]; 9 (3): 20-31. Available from: Doi: 10.1080/18626033.2014.968412

Kurlansky M. Educating designers in the digital age. Digital Creativity [Internet] 1998 [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 9(4): 218-222. Available from: Doi: 10.1080/14626269808567129

Malmborg L. The Digital Bauhaus: vision or reality?, Digital Creativity [Internet] 2008 Apr. 21 [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 15 (3): 175-181. Available from: Doi: 10.1080/14626260408520178

Marx J. A proposal for alternative methods for teaching digital design. Automation in Construction. [Internet] 2000 Jan. [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 9 (1): 19-35. Doi:

Maze J. Virtual Tactility: Working to Overcome Perceptual and Conceptual Barriers in the Digital Design Studio. Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002: 325-331.

Mikko Villi. “Hey, I’m here Right Now”: Camera phone photographs and mediated presence. photographies, [Internet]. 2015, Jan. 8 [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 8 (1): 3-22. Available from: Doi: 10.1080/17540763.2014.968937

Mitchell William JT. The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era. Cambridge Mass. The MIT Press; 2001

Nimkulrat N. Hands-on intellect: Integrating craft practice into design research. International Journal of Design. 2012 6 (3): 1-14.

Pelle E. Manifesto for a digital bauhaus, Digital Creativity [Internet]. 1998 [cited 2018 Nov. 18]. 9(4): 207-217. Available from: Doi: 10.1080/14626269808567128

Pöllänen, S. Contextualising Craft: Pedagogical Models for Craft Education. International Journal of Art & Design Education. [Internet] 2009, Dec. 8 [cited 2018 Nov. 24]; 28: 249-260. Available from: Doi:10.1111/j.1476-8070.2009.01619.x

Rekittke J, Paar P. Real-time Collage in Landscape Architecture [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2018 Nov. 30] Available from:

Sjöberg B. Design Theory and Design Practice within Sloyd Education. International Journal of Art & Design Education. [Internet] 2009 Mar. 20 [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 28: 71-81. Available from: doi: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2009.01594.x

Veeber E, Syrjäläinen E, Lind E. A discussion of the necessity of craft education in the 21st century, Techne Series: Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science [Internet]. 2015 Mar. 3 [cited 2018 Nov. 15]; 22(1): 15-29. Available from:

Winton A. Using Photography as a Creative, Collaborative Research Tool. The Qualitative Report [Internet] 2016, Feb. 29 [cited 2018 Nov. 24]; 21(2): 428-449. Available from

Yang CK, Tsai CY. Fast architecture prototyping through 3D collage. Multimed Tools Appl [Internet] 2012, April [cited 2018 Nov. 24]; 57(3): 527-547. Available from:

How to Cite
Mandea, M. (2019). Digital Post-processing on Scale Models - A Tool in Design Education. LUMEN Proceedings, 7(1), 180-189.