Teachers’ Resilience to Occupational Stress and Burnout

  • Neli BALODE Free University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Keywords: teachers burnout, job motivation, the basic needs satisfaction in organization, psycho-emotional climate


The article presents an empirical research carried out on a sample of 156 middle and high school teachers from the Republic of Moldova. The study was conducted in two stages: the first stage aiming to investigate to what extent school teachers are affected by burnout and what are the main symptoms they typically manifest in their teaching activity. The second stage was focused on examining a range of organizational and person related burnout factors in accordance with the conceptual framework of organizational health, which suggests adopting a more comprehensive approach to issues related to stress and burnout. Thus teacher’s motivation as a person related factor and the psycho-emotional climate along with the satisfaction of basic needs in the work place as organizational factors were investigated. It was found that majority of teachers display such symptoms of burnout as the feeling of overload due to excessive involvement in their job tasks resulting from their strong need to demonstrate high performance. The lack of control over the results of their teaching activity and the lack of acknowledgement of the efforts invested are other two major symptoms of burnout. Teaches with lower level of burnout demonstrate a stronger motivation for competence, they manage better to satisfy their basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness in the organizational context and also perceive as more favorable the psycho-emotional climate in their job place. These teachers stay longer in their profession (have more years of teaching experience) thus demonstrating a higher resilience to stress and burnout. Some suggestions for future research are also provided.  


[1] Cerniss C., & Kranz D.L. The ideological community as an antidote to burnout in the human services. In: Farber B. A., editor. Stress and burnout in the human services professions. New York: Pergamon. 1983. pp. 198-212
[2] De Heus P., & Diekstra R. F. W. Do teachers burn out more easily? A comparison of teachers with other social professions on work stress and burnout symptoms. In: Vandenberghe R., Huberman A. M., editors. Understanding and preventing teacher burnout: A sourcebook of international research and practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1999. pp. 269-284
[3] Demerouti E., Bakker A. B., Nachreiner F., & Schaufeli W. B. The job demands–resources model of burnout. Int J Appl Psychol. 2001. 86. pp. 499–512
[4] Demerouti E., Mostert K., & Bakker A. B. Burnout and work engagement: A thorough investigation of the independency of both constructs. J Occup Health Psychol. 2010. 15(3). pp. 209–222
[5] Elliot A. J. The hierarchical model of approach–avoidance motivation. Motiv Emot. 2006. 30. pp. 111–116
[6] Evers W. J., Tomic W., & Brouwers A. Burnout among teachers. Sch Psychol Int. 2004. 25(2). pp. 131–148
[7] Farber B. A. Symptoms and types: Worn-out, Frenetic, and Underchallenged teachers. In: Farber B. A., editor. Crisis in education. Stress and burnout in the American teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1991. pp. 72-97
[8] Friedman I. A., & Farber B. A. Professional self-concept as a predictor of teacher burnout. J Educ Res. 1992. 86(1). pp. 28-35
[9] Hakanen J. J., Bakker A. B., & Schaufeli W. B. Burnout and work engagement among teachers. J Sch Psychol. 2006. 43(6). pp. 495–513
[10] Halbesleben J. R. B., & Buckley M. R. Burnout in organizational life. J Manage. 2004; 30(6). pp. 859–879
[11] Hart P. M., & Cooper C. L. Occupational stress: Toward a more integrated framework. In: Anderson D. S., Ones H. K., Sinangil, Viswesvaran C., editors. Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology. Second edition. London: Sage. 2001. pp. 93-114
[12] Hobfoll S.E. The influence of culture, community and the nested-self in the stress process: Advancing conservation of resources theory. Appl Psychol. 2001; 50. pp. 337–370
[13] LeCompte M., & Dworkin A. Giving up on school: Student dropouts and teacher burnouts. Newbury Park, California: Corwin Press; 1991. p. 296
[14] Maslach C., Jackson S. E., & Leiter M. P. Maslach burnout inventory manual. 3rd edition. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press. 1996. p. 27
[15] Maslach C., Schaufeli W. B., & Leiter M. P. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001. 52(1). pp. 397-420
[16] Mihailiuk O.S., & Shalito A.I. Psy-files.ru. Social and psychological climate in organization [Internet]. [place unknown]. 2007 Feb. 20 [cited 2011, Jun. 21]. Available from: http://www.psyfiles.ru/mat/kollektiv/191- jekspressmetodika_po_izucheniju_socialno.html
[17] Montero-Marin J., & Garcia-Campayo J. A newer and broader definition of burnout: Validation of the “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36)”. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2010 Jun. [cited 2011 Jun. 2]. p. 9. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/302
[18] Pines A. M. Burnout: An existential perspective. In: Schaufeli W. B., Maslach C, Marek T. editors. Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research. Washington DC: Taylor & Francis. 1993. pp. 33-52
[19] Schaufeli W. B., Leiter M. P., & Maslach C. Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2011 Jan 12]. 14 (3). pp. 204-220. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620430910966406
[20] Skaalvik E. M., & Skaalvik S. Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy and teacher burnout. J Educ Psychol. 2007. 99(3). pp. 611–625
[21] Smith T. M., & Ingersoll R. M. What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? Am Educ Res J. 2004. 41(3). pp. 681–714
[22] ***. National Bureau of Statistics (MD). Statistical yearbook 2016 [Internet]. [cited 2017, Jan. 05]. p. 668. Available from: http://www.statistica.md/public/files/publicatii_electronice/Anuar_Statistic/2016/AS_2016.pdf
[23] Van den Broeck A., Vansteenkiste M., De Witte H., Soenens B., & Lens W. Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale. J Occup Organ Psychol. 2010. 83. pp. 981–1002
How to Cite
BALODE, N. (2018). Teachers’ Resilience to Occupational Stress and Burnout. LUMEN Proceedings, 3, 78-93. https://doi.org/10.18662/lumproc.nashs2017.6