From Endogenous Growth Theory to Knowledge Economy Pyramid - Comparative Analysis of Knowledge as an Endogenous Factor of Development
The transition from the neoclassical model with exogenous input of technological progress perspective toward R&D model with endogenous growth of knowledge perspective is not completed, but the premises of innovation, research, education, and entrepreneurship push the limits of labour-intensive economy to knowledge-intensive economy, where knowledge is a valuable resource for sustainable growth in the long-run and the role of Intellectual Capital is critical for increasing productivity and competitiveness. By introducing Intellectual Capital in the endogenous growth model, instead of Human Capital, we have the possibility to reflect better the difference between the market value of production and physical value. In the technological era, innovation and research are able to increase the market value comparing with the accounting value. In the 4th Industrial Revolution, this model is able to be changed dramatically if we take into account the possibility of machines to create knowledge through Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, new biotechnologies, new materials, and nanotechnology. For this reason, the more important action for the economic processes is to manage knowledge, starting with increased awareness, accurate measurement system, improved taxonomy, dedicated processes, and so on. In such conditions, the equation of growth theory has to be rewritten soon. The purpose of this research is not to provide a silver bullet of measurement Total Factor Productivity (TFP), but to understand better the part of productivity dedicated to the intangible and to validate this approach within the KEP model. Knowledge Economy Pyramid (KEP) is a valuable environment for incubating and accelerate knowledge in the process, as long as KEP model is creating a collaborative environment where the related stakeholders – universities, factories, technology providers, government, administration, local communities, clusters – are working together in order to achieve the objective of increasing productivity and competitiveness.
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