Gender Differences in Perception of Pain and Body Awareness in Athletes and Normally Active Subjects
According to numbers of present studies pain perception is modifiable by physical activity. This result is important for establishing and using of non-invasive methods with few side effects for patients with chronic pain conditions. The PURPOSE of this study is to examine the gender differences in relationship between physical activity, body awareness and pain perception. METHODOLOGY: Psychological Questionnaires: Body Awareness Questionnaire that asks subjects to rate, on a 4 point scale, the degree to which they were currently experiencing symptoms of sympathetic arousal, State Trait Anger Scale, and State Trait Anxiety Scale. Objective methods (cold pressure test) are used only to determine the pain sensation and pain tolerance thresholds. The (VAS) represents pain as a continuum and is sensitive to change. OWN CONTRIBUTION AND RESULTS: The results of investigation support the idea of significant interaction between body awareness, perception of pain and physical activity. This relationship depends significantly on gender. The female non-athletes estimate the pain through VAS during cold pressor test as more intensive in comparison to female athletes and men from both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The complex, multi-element method for measuring pain used in this study is a useful model for studying effects of exercise on the perception of pain.
 Arntz A., Dressen L., & Merckelbach H. Attention, not anxiety, inluences pain. Behav Res Ther. 1991(29). pp. 41-50
 Arntz A., Dressen L., & De Jong P. The influence of anxiety on pain: attentional and attributional mediators. Pain. 1994 Mar;56(3). Pp. 307-314
 Bruehl S., Burns J. W., Chung O. Y., & Chont M. Pain-related effects of trait anger expression: Neural substrates and the role of endogenous opioid mechanisms. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009 Mar; 33(3). pp. 475–491. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.12.003
 Burns J. W. The role of attentional strategies in moderating links between acute pain induction and subsequent psychological stress: evidence for symptom-specific reactivity among patients with chronic pain versus healthy nonpatients. Emotion. 2006 May. 6(2). pp. 180-192
 Burns J. W., Kubilius A., & Bruehl S. Emotion induction moderates effects of anger management style on acute pain sensitivity. Pain. 2003 Nov; 106 (1-2). pp. 109-118
 Cioffi D. Beyond attentional strategies: cognitive-perceptual model of somatic interpretation. Psychol Bull. 1991 Jan.109(1). pp. 25-41
 Cioffi D., & Holloway J. Delayed costs of suppressed pain. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993. Feb. 64(2). pp. 274-282
 Dellemijn P. L., & Fields H. L. Do benzodiazepines have a role in chronic pain management? Pain. 1994 May. 57(2). pp. 137-152
 Eccleston C., Crombez G., Aldrich S., & Stannard C. Attention and somatic awareness in chronic pain. Pain. 1997 Aug; 72(1-2). pp. 209-215
 Fillingim RB. Sex-related influences on pain. A review of mechanisms and clinical implications. Rehabil Psychol. 2003(48). pp. 165–174
 Fillingim RB., Browning A. D., Powell T., & Wright R. A. Sex differences in perceptual and cardiovascular responses to pain: The influence of a perceived ability manipulation. J Pain. 2002;3. pp. 439–445
 Franzoi SL., Kessenich JJ., & Sugrue PA. Gender differences in the experience of body awareness: An experiential sampling study. Sex Roles.1989(21). pp. 499-515. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF 00289100
 Gracely R. H., McGrath F., & Dubner R. Ratio scales of sensory and affective verbal pain descriptors. Pain. 1978 Jun, 5(1). pp. 5-18
 Janssen S. A., & Arntz A. Anxiety and pain: attentional and endorphinergic influences. Pain. 1996 Aug;66(2-3). pp. 145-150
 Janssen S. A., Arntz A., & Bouts S. Anxiety and pain: epinephrine-induced hyperalgesia and attentional influences. Pain. 1998 Jun;76(3). pp. 309-316.
 Janssen S. A. Negative affect and sensitization to pain. Scand J Psychol. 2002 Apr; 43(2). pp. 131-170
 Koltyn K. F., Malani R. T., Stegner A. J., & Tobar D. A. Effect of isometric exercise on pain perception and blood pressure in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Feb. 33(2). pp. 282-290
 Lichtman A. H., & Fanselow M. S. Cats produce analgesia in rats on the tailflick test: Naltrexone sensitivity is determined by the nociceptive test stimulus. Brain Res. 1990 Nov 12, 533(1).pp. 91-94
 Maier S. F. Determinants of the nature of environmentally induced hypoalgesia. Behav Neurosci. 1989(103). pp. 131–143
 Meagher M. W., Grau J. W., & King R. A. Frontal cortex lesions block the opioidand nonopioid hypoalgesia elicited by brief shocks but not the nono-pioid hypoalgesia elicited by long shocks. Behav Neurosci. 1989(103). pp. 1366-1371
 Meagher M. W., Ferguson A. R., Crown E. D., McLemore S., King T. E., Sieve A. N., et al. Shock-induced hyperalgesia: IV. Generality. J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 2001b;27:219–238
 Scott V., & Gijsbers K. Pain perception in competitive swimmers. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981 Jul 11. 283(6284). pp. 91–93
 Shields S. A., Mallory M. E., & Simon A. The Body Awareness Questionnaire: Reliability and validity. J Pers Assess. 1989. 53(4). pp. 802-815.
 Smith RE. A positive approach to coaching effectiveness and performance enhancement. In: J. M. Williams, editor. Applied sport psychology: personal growth to peak performance. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010. pp. 42-58
 Spielberger C. D. Manual for the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. 1988
 Spielberger C. D. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Bibliography. 2nd ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. 1989
 Wall P. D. On the relation of injury to pain. Pain. 1979 Jun. 6(3):253-264
 Walsh N., Schoenfeld L., Ramamurth S., et al. Normative model for cold pressor test. Am J Phys Med Rehab. 1989 Feb. 68(1). pp. 6-11
 Walters E. T. Injury-related behavior and neuronal plasticity: an evolutionary perspective on sensitization, hyperalgesia, and analgesia. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1994. 36. pp. 325-427
Copyright (c) 2018 LUMEN Proceedings
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.