Historytelling: Designing Validated Heritage Narratives for Non-captive Audiences. Evidence from EU Funded Projects in the Programming Period 2014-2020
Much too often a temporospatial gap arises between monuments and non-captive audiences at places of cultural significance. It emerges as the missing link between the tangible and the intangible form of cultural heritage. While material substance or architecture of a monument are perceived by the eye, values and inherent meanings remain inaccessible. This particular condition is further modified for the better or worse by the skills of the audience, which has different origins, mentalities and cultural backgrounds that hinder or enhance the perception and appreciation of cultural heritage. Following the philosophy of hermeneutics, this paper suggests that the temporo-spatial gap between monuments and audiences is principally of cognitive nature: to understand and embrace heritage values and effectively bridge the gap, we need to connect the tangible form of the object to its intangible dimensions, symbols, meanings and values. As much of the supply side offers remain codified in the language of experts, while the public, especially the youth, is looking for compelling stories and multisensory experiences, we need to look for a new narrative discourse. This paper examines evidence from 260 heritage narratives produced through EU funded projects in the Programming Period 2014-2020, in an attempt to evaluate the knowledge acquisition pattern developed and the role of AV technology plays in the development of a validated heritage narrative.
Buonincontri P, Marasco A, Ramkissoon H. Visitors’ Experience, Place Attachment and Sustainable Behaviour at Cultural Heritage Sites: A Conceptual Framework. Sustainability 2017;9(1112):1-19.
Kempiaka J, Hollywood L, Bolana P, McMahon-Beattieb U. The heritage tourist: an understanding of the visitor experience at heritage attractions. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 2017;23(4):375-92.
Eurobarometer. Cultural Heritage. Brussels: EC, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture; 2017.
Eurobarometer. Cultural Access and Participation. Brussels; 2013. Report No.: 399.
Moscardo G. Mindful visitors. Heritage and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 1996;23(2):376-97.
Frauman E, Norman W. Mindfulness as a Tool for Managing Visitors to Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research. 2004;42(4):381–389. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287504263033
Hanquinet L, Savage M. ‘Educative leisure’ and the art museum. Museum and Society. 2015;10(1):42-59.
Bitgood S. Attention and value: a key to understanding museum visitors. London and New York: Routledge; 2013.
Dicks B. The Habitus of Heritage: a Discussion of Bourdieu's Ideas for Visitor Studies in Heritage and Museums. Museum and Society. 2016;14(1):52-64.
Di Russo A. Culture as a value. Journal for Public Archaeology. 2018;(2):1-15.
Vrettakis E, Kourtis V, Katifori A, Karvounis M, Lougiakis C, Ioannidis Y. Narralive – Creating and experiencing mobile digital storytelling in cultural heritage. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. 2019;15:1-9.
Mc Kinney S, Perry S, Katifori A, Kourtis V. Developing Digital Archaeology for Young People: A Model for Fostering Empathy and Dialogue in Formal and Informal Learning Environments. In: Hagenauer S, editor. Communicating the Past in the Digital Age. Digital Methods in Teaching and Learning in Archaeology; 2018; London: Ubiquity Press; 2018. p. 199-214.
Kleinman E, Caro K, Zhu J. From immersion to metagaming: Understanding rewind mechanics in interactive storytelling. Entertainment Computing. 2020;33:1.
Psomadaki O, Dimoulas, CA, Kalliris FM, Gregory Paschalidis G. Digital storytelling and audience engagement in cultural heritage management: A collaborative model based on the Digital City of Thessaloniki. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2019;36:12-22.
Prasada S. Acquiring Generic Knowledge. Trends in Cognitive Science. 2000;4(2):66-72.
Hoffman B. Cognitive efficiency: A conceptual and methodological comparison. Learning and Instruction 2012;22(2):133-44.
Baddeley AD, Eysenck M, Anderson MC. Memory. Hove: Psychology Press; 2014.
Mitchum R. Neuroscientist leads unprecedented research to map billions of brain cells. Chicago News, 2018/07/19.
Graesser AC. Emotions are the experiential glue of learning environments in the 21st century. Learning and Instruction. 2019:101212.
Antinucci F. Musei Virtuali. Come non fare innovazione tecnologica. Bari: Laterza; 2007.
Palombini A. Narrazione e virtualità: possibili prospettive per la comunicazione museale. Digitalia. Rivista del digitale nei beni culturali. 2012;1:8-22.
Antinucci F. Communicare nel museo. 2nd Edition ed. Bari: Laterza; 2014.
Eurobarometer. European Citizenship. Brussels: European Union; 2015.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Media Violence. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1495-503.
Papathanassiou-Zuhrt D, Di Russo A, Cinar K. Culture as an Instrument of Mass Construction. In: Kavoura A, editor. Strategic Innovative Marketing and Tourism. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics Cham: Springer Verlag; 2019.
Violence against women. An EU wide survey. Luxembourg: EUAFRA; 2014.
COE. The role of culture and cultural heritage in conflict prevention, transformation, resolution and post conflict action: The Council of Europe approach. Strasbourg; 2011.
De Coster I. Citizenship Education in Europe. Main Findings from the Recent EURIDICE Report. Vilnius: Eurydice and Policy Support Unit EACEA; 2013.
Strohl M. Horror and Hedonic Ambivalence. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 2012;70(2):203-12.
Papathanasiou-Zuhrt D. Cognitive Load Management of Cultural Heritage Information: An Application Multi-Mix for Recreational Learners. In: Vasile V, editor. "Heritage as an alternative driver for sustainable development and economic recovery in South East Europe -Project SEE/B/0016/4.3/X SAGITTARIUS"; 2015: Elsevier Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences; 2015. p. 57-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.339
Palombini A. Storytelling and telling history. Towards a grammar of narratives for Cultural Heritage dissemination in the Digital Era. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2017;24:134-39.
Lu F. Museum architecture as spatial storytelling of historical time: Manifesting a primary example of Jewish space in Yad Vashem Holocaust History Museum. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 2017;6:442-455.
Vaz R, Odete Fernandes P, Nascimento Rocha Veiga AC. Interactive Technologies in Museums: How Digital Installations and Media Are Enhancing the Visitors' Experience. In: Rodrigues JMF, Ramos CMQ, Cardoso PJS, Henriques C, editor. Handbook of Research on Technological Developments for Cultural Heritage and eTourism Applications Hershey PA, USA: IGI Global; 2018. p. 30-53.
Plass JL, Homer BD, MacNamara A, Ober T, Rose MC, Pawar S, et al. Emotional design for digital games for learning: The effect of expression, color, shape, and dimensionality on the affective quality of game characters. Learning and Instruction. 2019:101194.
Gadamer HG, Hermeneutik I. Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik. Zweite Auflage ed. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr; 1990. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 2017;6 :455-455.
Lajoie SP, Pekrun R, Azevedo R, Leighton JP. Understanding and measuring emotions in technology-rich learning environments. Learning and Instruction. 2019:101272.
Abendroth J, Richter T. How to understand what you don't believe: Metacognitive training prevents belief-biases in multiple text comprehension. Learning and Instruction. 2021;71:101394.
Ravna ZV. “Skills come with experience” a pedagogical study of different forms of communication in Nenets nomadic communities in Northern Russia. Learning and Instruction. 2021;71:101373.
Bourdieu P. Les trois états du capital culturel. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales. 1979;30(1):3-6.
Luo JM, Yeb BH. Role of generativity on tourists’ experience expectation, motivation and visit intention in museums. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 2020;43:120-26.
Cekaite A, Björk-Willén P. Enchantment in storytelling: Co-operation and participation in children’s aesthetic experience. Linguistics and Education. 2018;48:52-60.
Dewey J. Art as experience. London: Penguin; 2005.
Copyright (c) 2020 LUMEN Proceedings
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited