The Philosophical Vision of Legal Punishment

  • Virginia Zaharia PhD. Moldova State University, Faculty of Law, Department of International and European Law
Keywords: crime, punishment, re-education, criminal, philosophy

Abstract

The concept of punishment represents one of the most difficult legal issues that are related to the concept of human freedom and responsibility. Since Antiquity, the brilliant minds of humanity contemplated about the sense of punishment and the function of this institution. Each epoch analyses this concept from different aspects and some of them are reflected in the actual legislation. The most important principles of contemporary criminal law were expounded by the Ancient, Modern and Contemporary philosophers. The field of research of this article is the philosophy of punishment of criminal law. In this study, we have applied the method of historical research of the proposed topic, which gives us the opportunity to analyze the development of criminal punishment and its goals from a historical perspective. In this paper, we aimed to determine the philosophical base of the legal punishment that legitimizes the application of sanctions to the person who committed the crime. We established the importance of the theories developed by brilliant thinkers for the contemporary concept of penal retribution and legal regulation of this institution. This theme generates several discussions that are formed in the process of comparison and debating of the ideas of influential philosophers regarding the purpose of criminal punishment. Therefore, we consider that the analysis of the theories of great thinkers gives us the possibility to understand the complexity of the phenomenon of criminal punishment, and leads to the more effective application of state constraint towards the offender.

References

Aristotle, & Ross, W. D. (1981). Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford

Ciobanu, I. (2007). Criminologie, Chișinău. Cartdidact. Reclama Publishing House.

Le Mahieu,D.L.(2002).Introduction to Paley's The Principles of Moral and Political Philosop. Liberty Fund.

Duff, R. (2002). Virtue, Vice, and Criminal Liability: Do We Want an Aristotelian Criminal Law. Buffalo Criminal Law Review, 6(1), 147-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/nclr.2002.6.1.147

Green, M. J. (2016). Authorization and the Right to Punish in Hobbes. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 97(1), 113–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/papq.12097

Grotius, H. (2001). On the law of war and peace. Batoche Books Kitchener.

Hegel, G. V. F.(1934).Philosophy of law. Sotsekgiz.

Hobbes, T. (2002). Leviathan. Wordsworth

Howard, J. (2017). Punishment as Moral Fortification.Law and Philosophy, 36, 45–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10982-016-9272-2

Hüning, D. (2007). Hobbes on the Right to Punish. In P. Springborg (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes's Leviathan, (pp. 217-240).Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521836670.010

Kalmanovitz, P. (2020). The Laws of War in International Thought. Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. (1965). Metaphysics of morals. Cambridge University Press.

Höffe, O. (1999). MetaphysischeAnfangsgrunde der Rechtslehre. Kant’s GesammelteSchriften. Walter de Gruyter.

Konradova, V. (2019). The Concept of Punishment in Plato’s Eschatological Myths. Etica e Politica, 3, 571-582. http://www2.units.it/etica/2019_3/KONRADOVA.pdf

Marc'hadour, G. P. (2021). Thomas More. Encyclopedia Britannica.

More, T. (2000). Utopia. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Nietzsche, F. (2007). On the Genealogy of Morality. Cambridge University Press.

Nietzsche, F. (2010). Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Dover Publications.

Paley, W. (1825). The principles of moral and political philosophy. Liberty Fund Inc.

Plato. (2008). Laws. Cambridge University Press.

Pop, T.(1928). Curs de criminology [Criminology course]. Universul Juridic Publishing House.

Rauscher, F.(2021).Kant’s Social and Political Philosophy. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2021/entries/kant-social-political/

Schopenhauer, A. (1997). Selected works. Rostov

Sehaefer A., (1982). Die Schopenhaner. Berlin Verlag.

Soktoev, Z. (2014). Aristotle's Philosophy and Criminal Law Causality, Legal Sciences Actual Problems of Criminal Law and Criminology. Bulletin of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 1. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/filosofiya-aristotelya-i-ugolovno-pravovaya-prichinnost

The National Assembly. (1971).The Constitution of 1791 National Assembly September 3, 1791. National Assembly. https://wp.stu.ca/worldhistory/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2015/07/French-Constitution-of-1791.pdf

The Gouvernament of United States. (1787).The Constitution of the United States (1787). The constitutional Convention. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=9

The Gouvernament of United States. (1789).The Constitution Of The United States Bill of Rights & All Amendments. Congress of the United States. https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights-transcript

The National Assembly of France.(1789).The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The National Assembly of France. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp

Robertson,A. J. (1925).The Laws of the Kings of Englandfrom Edmund and Henry.Cambridge University Press.

Voronkova, N. V. (2014). Philosophical and legal teachings on punishment in the XV-XVIII centuries. Novosibirsk State Technical University.

Yelchanikova, O.(2011).K voprosu o vzglyadakhPlatonanainstituty «Prestupleniye» i «Nakazaniye» [On the question of Plato's views on the Institutions of "Crime" and "Punishment"]. Actual problems of the theory and history of state and law.VestnikSamarskogoyuridicheskogoinstituta[Bulletin of the Samara Law Institute], 2, 13-18.https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/k-voprosu-o-vzglyadah-platona-na-instituty-prestuplenie-i-nakazanie

Published
2022-01-13
How to Cite
Zaharia, V. (2022). The Philosophical Vision of Legal Punishment. LUMEN Proceedings, 17, 723-736. https://doi.org/10.18662/wlc2021/73